D342 Compartmentalization and Connectivity in Sandstone Reservoirs

Event Facts

  • 4 Oct. 2021
  • 5 Oct. 2021
  • 6 Oct. 2021
  • 7 Oct. 2021
  • 8 Oct. 2021
  • 11 Oct. 2021
  • 12 Oct. 2021
  • 13 Oct. 2021
  • 14 Oct. 2021
  • 15 Oct. 2021
Half-day sessions, starting in the mornings for the Americas and afternoons for Europe, Africa and Middle East. Any variation to this will be communicated in advance.
Event Code:
10 sessions
John Snedden
Booking Status:
Limited Availability
USD $4,860 (Exclusive of tax)

Course Facts

Course Code:
5 days
Virtual Classroom
4 Continuing Education Units
4.0 Professional Development Hours
Certificate Issued Upon Completion


Business Impact:The reservoir connectivity workflow taught in this course has proven successful in increasing field reserves by identification of new or underdepleted compartments, deeper oil/water contacts, oil columns in gas-dominated closures, and cross-fault flow or channel to channel reservoir flow that increases overall recovery.

The complex interplay of fluids and rock architecture controls efficient depletion of conventional sandstone reservoirs. Stratigraphic and structural analyses often provide much detail, but static and dynamic connectivity information reveal the elements that really matter to flow. This course uses fluid, pressure, log, seismic, and core data to examine the movement of reservoir fluids (oil, gas, water) over geologic and production timescales and determine which factors are critical in the development and exploitation of siliciclastic hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Duration and Training Method

A virtual classroom course divided into 10 webinar sessions over a two-week period (equivalent to a five-day classroom course), comprising lectures, discussion, case studies, and practical exercises to be completed by participants during and between sessions. Exercises are keyed to specific reservoir types, different data density and vintage, different reservoir drive and recovery mechanisms. Short movies of numerical simulations are also utilized. In-class exercises that utilize Excel spreadsheets are provided to participants.

Participants will learn to:
  1. Assess “what really matters to flow” at geologic and production timescales.
  2. Select potential reservoir compartments from analysis of structure contour maps.
  3. Evaluate static and dynamic pressure data to evaluate shale barriers, baffles, erosion by channels and scours.
  4. Characterize controls upon shale bed continuity (2D/3D).
  5. Evaluate isopach maps to identify potential underdepleted field compartments.
  6. Predict compartmentalization caused by interaction of faults and reservoir sand bodies.
  7. Select and utilize concepts like the breakover point and other topologic controls on fluid contacts.
  8. Characterise differing GOC/OWC’s and differentiate from perched water.
  9. Evaluate discovery and appraisal wells and use data to construct a set of plausible reservoir connectivity scenarios.
  10. Understand how dynamic field changes as determined from 4D seismic, PLT's, pressure buildups, downhole pressure gauges, and time-lapse geochemistry are used in production.
  11. Appraise differing connectivity challenges of fluvial, shoreline, deltaic, and deepwater reservoirs.
  12. Evaluate key sedimentological and geologic factors controlling porosity, permeability, net to gross, and sand body and shale bed continuity.
1. Introduction
  • Beyond “Dry Rock” reservoir architecture: geofluid distribution as an indication of what really matters to flow
  • Reservoir Properties: Why depositional environment really matters
  • Exercise: Reservoir properties and impact on exploration prospect risking
  • Static (geologic) connectivity versus Dynamic (production-time scale) connectivity
  • Understanding reservoir connectivity from a joint rock and fluid perspective
    • Traps, compartments (versus flow units), breakover, aquifer separation
    • Connectivity concepts in two- and three-fluid systems
  • Exercse: Compartment identification in mixed-influence deltaic reservoir
    • Identification of reservoir compartments from structure contour maps
  • Exercise: Fluid contact scenarios
    • Two- and three-fluid compartments, compartment diagrams, fault plane profiles

2. Static Connectivity

  • Topological controls on fluid distributions in fluvial and deepwater channelized systems
  • Perched water versus separated aquifers
  • The hierarchy of shale barriers and baffles in distributive deltaic and shore zone systems
  • Top seal control on fluid contact elevation: three classes of capillary seals and traps
  • Exercise: Classification of oil and gas compartments by Sales (spill vs. leak) and Sneider (top seal character) parameters (spreadsheet)
  • Scours: fluvial versus deepwater types; 3D seismic, forward seismic models, physical experiments
  • Shale bed continuity in 3-dimensions
  • Exercise: Fluvial channel reservoir connectivity
    • Correlation of High NTG channels in a large field in the North Sea
    • Recognition of sequence boundaries using core and log data
    • Use of MDT pressure data to evaluate shale baffles, barriers, erosion by scour
    • Construction of isopach maps, determination of underdepleted field compartments, planning infill drilling

3. Dynamic Connectivity

  • The effect of channel base scours on fluid communication
  • Barrier breakthrough: myths and reality: numerical models
  • Fluid cusping vs. fluid coning: why these are often confused; case study
  • Investigating connectivity with 4D seismic and PLT’s
  • Exercise: Construction of connectivity scenarios: fluvially-dominated delta
    • Fault-bounded compartments versus delta lobe compartments
    • Construction of connectivity scenarios
    • Use of static and dynamic data in discriminating between three connectivity scenarios
    • Understanding hierarchy of shales and its role in modeling of deltas and deepwater distributive systems
  • Fault connectivity (cross-fault flow) at geologic and production time scales
    • Use of fault plane profiles to identify cross fault flow
    • Importance of delta throw/shale bed ratios
    • Clay smear vs. SGR: field observations and experimental models

4. Connectivity Input to reservoir engineering and simulation models

  • Fault dip and bed dip: parallel versus divergent trends and effect on water and gas flooding
  • Placing scours and shales in geological models: stochastic versus deterministic
  • Exercise: Fault and deepwater sand body interaction
    • See production differences between amalgamated channel and channel-levee reservoirs
    • Observe separate oil-water contacts and dynamic connectivity not predicted by static data
    • Explain compartmentalization created by interaction of faults and channels
    • Construct static connectivity diagram and use to understand dynamic performance trends
    • Evaluate development and post-production startup results from connectivity models

Who should attend

This course has been designed for geoscientists and engineers, petrophysicists, reservoir simulation experts and geologic modelers, or anyone who wishes to better understand reservoir performance.

Prerequisites and linking courses

A familiarity with development geology, reservoir engineering concepts and geological analysis of well logs is assumed, such as offered in Basic Application level courses N006 (An Introduction to Reservoir Engineering for Geoscientists), N008 (An Introduction to Reservoir Appraisal and Development) and N003 (Geological Interpretation of Well Logs).

John Snedden


Dr. Snedden, project leader of the Gulf of Mexico Basin Depositional Synthesis (GBDS) Project, has over 25 years of industry experience with Mobil and ExxonMobil, including 11 years in research. John's technical specialties include sequence and seismic stratigraphy, sedimentology, reservoir characterization, reservoir connectivity analysis, and unconventional resource evaluation. He has worked in a number of basins, including the U.S. Gulf Coast, West Texas Midland Basin, North Sea, Mid-Norway, Barents Sea, Papua New Guinea, Arkoma Basin, Niger Delta, Sarawak (Malaysia), Mahakam Delta (Indonesia), U.S. Atlantic Shelf, Northwest Shelf Australia, Pannonian Basin (Hungary), South Caspian Sea (Azerbaijan-Turkmenistan), China, Norwegian Sea, Gulf of Mexico shelf and slope, North Caspian Basin (Kazakhstan), and the Lower Saxony and Ruhr-Muensterland Basins, Germany (unconventional, CBM, Shale Gas, Light Tight Oil).

John has published over 30 scientific papers: he is the first author on 23 of these. John has a history of leadership in technical societies such as SEPM and the Gulf Coast Section of SEPM. He has also served as technical chair of several large AAPG conventions. He is lead author of the book Gulf of Mexico Sedimentary Basin: Depositional Evolution and Petroleum Applications published by Cambridge University Press in November 2019.

Affiliations and Accreditation
PhD Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
MS Texas A&M University, College Station, TX
BA  Trinity University, San Antonio, TX

Courses Taught
N043: Gulf Of Mexico Petroleum Systems
N342: Compartmentalization and Connectivity in Sandstone Reservoirs
N343: Depositional Evolution of the Gulf of Mexico Sedimentary Basin
N349: Practical Methods for Sequence Stratigraphic Prediction

Alternative Dates for this Course

Related Subjects

This course has been both a refresher for some concepts and a learning experience for new ones introduced, which has been most helpful.